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Japan and the EU: Development Partners Presentation


Laporte, G. 2013. Japan and the EU: Development Partners. (ECDPM Presentation).

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  • 1. A comparative analysis(mainly based on DAC peer reviews)Geert Laporte European Institute for Asian Studies, Brussels 28 May 2013 Japan and the EU:DevelopmentPartners
  • WHAT IS ECDPM? 2. Independent foundation working on EU-Africa relations for more than 25 years:1. Non-partisan facilitation of dialogue2. Practical and policy relevant analysis3. Linking key players in the EU and Africa,through networks and partnerships4. Capacity building in Africa to bring more balance in the partnership with the EU5. Building alliances with non-EU players in development (Japan, BRICS, USA, SouthKorea, Switzerland…)



  • 1.The changing development context
  • 2.Comparative analysis Japan-EU
  • 3.Where can Japan and EU join forces? 
  • 4. 1. THE CHANGING DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT ECDPM. Global financial and economic crisis, particularly affectingEU2. Declining aid budgets (ODA) but increasing needs for different sources of finance to tackle development and global challenges (e.g climate change)3. New players in development (BRICS, G-20, private sector, development foundations,…)4. A more political vision of development: Busan: “…it is essential to examine the inter-dependence and coherenceof all public policies – not just development policies…”
  • • Economic power-house but little political power
  • • Losing influence to new competitors,mainly in Asia(China, Korea,…)
  • • Trade giant butpolitical dwarf (inspite of LisbonTreaty)
  • • “EU is a payer not a player”• Losing influence to emerging economies (BRICSetc)
  • 6. PLACE IN DEVELOPMENT JAPAN• From biggest aid donor(1991-2000) to 5th donor(2013)• Presence in some 140countries• Not considered to be a leader in the policy debates and agenda-setting but quite an effective implementer  EUROPEAN UNION• EU “formidable player”(DAC): 60% of all aid in the world (EU & MS) &largest humanitarian donor…but declining budgets• Network of 136 Delegations• Strong on policy and strategy development(EU Consensus onDevelopment, Agenda for Change,…)…but weak on implementation
  • 7. POLICY ORIENTATIONS JAPAN• Focus on economic transformation (“self help” +own development experience): economic growth,infrastructure, industrial production, agriculture,..)• Commercial and business interests• Fragile states and human security has been added• Strong focus on technical cooperation• Principle of non-intervention EUROPEAN UNION• Poverty reduction• Value driven agenda(good governance)• Inclusive growth• Support to regional integration (own role model)• Rather normative development approach(…with double standards)
  • 8. GEOGRAPHIC FOCUS JAPAN• Key focus = (East)Asia (but also doubling of aid toAfrica in recent years)• Focus on middle income countries   EUROPEAN UNION• Key focus=Africa• Least developed countries (“direct aid where it is most needed”)• Increasing differentiation: no more aid to upper middle income countries
  • 9. VOLUMES & MODALITIES  JAPAN• 0,18% of GNI (approx 10billion $)• Rather traditional approach: projects rather than programmes, loans,technical cooperation, tied aid,…• Strong preference for bilateral earmarked aid(84% in 2008)• Need to increase use of programmatic approaches and core/institutionalfunding EUROPEAN UNION• 0,44% of GNI (2010) =70 Billion $ ODA• Collective ODA level of0,7% of GNI will not be reached in 2015• Strong focus on regional organisations• Need to increase use of flexible core funding
  • 10. ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT JAPAN• Quite centralised and hierarchical• More responsibility to implementation and coordination agency(new JICA)• Need to delegate more authority to the field• Separate and additional reporting for Japanes eearmarked funds= high transaction costs EUROPEAN UNION• Complex institutional architecture (unclear role division and duplicationEEAS-DEVCO)• Several financial instruments with heavy procedures• Increased devolution of authority and staff to the field• Intense scrutiny by EP,Council, European Courtof Auditors, think tanks,NGOs
  • 11.COORDINATION & HARMONISATION  JAPAN• „go-it alone approach‟• Resistance to harmonisation EUROPEAN UNION• Strong declarations but little action on coordination and complementarity
  • 12. PCD POLICY COHERENCE FOR DEVELOPMENT (PCD) JAPAN• No explicit policys tatement, institutional mechanisms and monitoring and reporting systems EUROPEAN UNION• In spite of solid strategic framework with appropriate institutional mechanisms,independent analytical capacities and tools to track progress …little concrete progress has been achieved
  • 13. PARTNERS & PUBLIC SUPPORT JAPAN• Key focus on national governments• Low involvement of civil society organisations/NGOs (only 3% of budget)• Rather modest pro-development lobby and limited involvement ofJapanese NGOs in implementation EUROPEAN UNION• Key focus on governments and CSOs• Structured dialogue withCSOs and local authorities• Strong public support for development inmost EU countries
  • 14. WHERE CAN JAPAN AND EU JOIN FORCES? • Africa increasingly important for both partners• TICAD V (1-3 June 2013 Yokohama)- EU-AfricaSummit (April 2014)• Common concerns, priorities and interests that could be different from emerging development players• Complement “traditional” MDG development focus with new Post 2015 development vision
  • 15. Thank 

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