The Ukraine crisis has revealed the fragility of the European security architecture. The aim to create a stable security order in Europe through institutional cooperation with the post-Soviet Russia via NATO, OSCE and the Council of Europe as well as through partnership agreements has not been achieved. The principles of the post-war order such as selfdetermination, rule of law, respect for human rights, territorial integrity and non-violence are questioned. The list of mutual accusations between NATO and the EU on the one side and Russia on the other is long and indicates that the erosion of the European security order has taken its origin long before the Ukraine crisis.
Russia feels excluded from joint decision-making processes in Europe and considers its interests to be ignored whereas the West is losing confidence in Russia’s leadership in view of President Putin’s aggressive and neo-imperialist foreign policy. In addition to the geopolitical rivalries over spheres of influence and competing models of integration, Europe witnesses an increasing ideological dispute on democratic values and their consistent application in conflict regions, such as Eastern Europe, Afghanistan, Libya, and Iraq.